Health Issues Caused by Obesity and Treatment of Obesity

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Obesity is a condition characterized by an abundance of weight in the body, which raises the risk of developing various health conditions. Obesity is described as having a body weight that is 20% higher than average. It affects more women than it does men. Globally, obesity is one of the leading causes of mortality, affecting an increasing number of adults and children. 

In Mumbai, many individuals are affected by obesity due to the modern lifestyle, eating junk food, stress, and other causes. Due to health issues, many obese individuals focus on losing weight through exercises and lifestyle changes. If these methods don’t work, they visit their physician to seek weight loss treatment.

When available medications don’t show the expected results, their physician may recommend one of the best bariatric surgeon in Mumbai. The goal of bariatric surgeons is to help patients either prevent the onset of obesity or find solutions to reverse the obesity.

First, let’s discuss,

What is Obesity?

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat accumulates under the skin and around the visceral organs. Other disorders and illnesses it can induce are heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, depression, etc.

Now, let’s know,

What Causes Obesity?

Obesity can be caused by consuming too many calories, fats, and sugars. Mainly, it is caused by overeating and a lack of physical exercise. Exercising or doing physical activity burns off the extra energy you get from your diet. If the excess energy is not burned, it is retained as fat in the body, resulting in obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Unhealthy diet and inadequate sleep
  • Hereditary factors 
  • Stress, anxiety, and depression
  • Menopause: 5 to 7 kg of weight gain
  • Weight gain after pregnancy

Obesity is caused by a variety of medical disorders, including:

  1. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal deficiency that can lead to obesity in women.
  2. Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that causes pain in the joints and makes physical activity difficult.
  3. Hypothyroidism causes weight gain due to a lack of thyroid hormone production.
  4. Cushing’s syndrome is a condition in which the body produces too much cortisol.
  5. Prader-Willi syndrome is a genetic disease that causes obesity and intellectual disabilities in newborns.

Medications like contraceptives, antipsychotics, and antidepressants can also cause weight gain.

Now, let’s know,

What are the Symptoms of Obesity?

Obesity can have the following symptoms, which can affect our everyday lives:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Back and joint pain
  • Inactive physical activity
  • Excess sweating
  • Loss of confidence
  • Severe mood disorder
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Overeating
  • Hypertension
  • High levels of cholesterol

What are the Complications of Obesity?

Excess body fat can place a person at risk for a variety of health issues, including:

  • Type-2 diabetes 
  • High blood pressure 
  • Higher cholesterol levels
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Risk of breast and colon cancers
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Infertility 
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Insomnia

How Is Obesity Diagnosed?

The BMI of an individual is used to diagnose obesity. The body mass index (BMI) is a measurement of a person’s weight to their height. When the BMI is 30 or higher, it is evident that the individual is obese. The thickness of the skin-fold and the waist-to-hip ratio are two measures to evaluate body fat.

Other tests include:

  • Blood Test: For analysis of cholesterol and glucose levels.
  • Imaging Tests: CT scan, Ultrasound, and MRI.
  • Liver Function Test
  • Thyroid test (TSH)
  • ECG (heart functioning test)
  • Diabetes test

What is the Treatment for Obesity?

Obesity may be handled or controlled in a variety of ways, including:

1. Lifestyle changes

Dieting: Nutrient-rich foods should be eaten to aid in weight loss.

Physical Exercise: A well-planned physical exercise can improve stamina, metabolism and aid in burning excess body fat.

2. Behavioural changes

Counselling and social support may aid in the treatment of stress and overeating behaviour.

3. Medicines

Medications are only prescribed after all weight reduction techniques have failed and if the BMI is 30 or higher. Medicines either stop fat absorption or reduce appetite. Bowel urgency and irregular bowel movements are two common side effects.

4. Bariatric Surgery

It is ideal for people with a BMI of 35 to 40 or higher. Surgical solutions include the following:

  1. Gastric Sleeve (vertical sleeve gastrectomy): This procedure removes 80% of the stomach.
  2. Gastric Bypass Surgery: A small pouch is cut into the abdomen, reducing its size and limiting the amount of food consumed and absorbed.
  3. LAGB (Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding): It is a procedure that involves placing a band over the upper part of the stomach to form a narrow pouch that contains food. The band restricts the amount of food consumed.
  4. Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch: This procedure involves removing portions of the stomach. A small pouch is created, which stays attached to the small intestine’s final segment and bypasses the upper part.

What are the Obesity Prevention Methods?

Obesity prevention strategies include the following:

  • Practicing a healthy lifestyle 
  • Easy exercising regularly for 20 to 30 mins.
  • Consuming nutritional food
  • Reducing intake of fats and calories 
  • Taking medicines to reduce hunger and fat absorption

So, achieving an “ideal weight” is not necessary to gain the benefits from obesity treatment. The goal of treatment should instead be to achieve and maintain a “healthier weight.” The focus of treatment should be on committing to a lifetime of healthy living, including making better food choices and doing physical activity.

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